Vapor Chamber

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Types of Heat Pipes
  1. Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon
  1. Capillary-Driven Heat Pipe
  1. Annular Heat Pipe
  1. Vapor Chamber
  1. Rotating Heat Pipe
  1. Gas-Loaded Heat Pipe
  1. Loop Heat Pipe
  1. Capillary Pumped Loop Heat Pipe
  1. Pulsating Heat Pipe
  1. Monogroove Heat Pipe
  1. Micro and Miniature Heat Pipes
  1. Inverted Meniscus Heat Pipe
  1. Nonconventional Heat Pipes

The vapor chamber is a capillary-driven planar (flat-plate heat pipe in a rectangular or disk-shaped) with a small aspect ratio [1][2][3][4][5], as shown in Fig. 1.

Vapor chamber.
Figure 1: Vapor chamber.

Additional wick blocks between the evaporator and condenser aid in condensate return, especially when the condenser is below the evaporator in a gravity field. If the condenser is above the evaporator, there is no need to have a wick in the condenser section, since the condensate on the upper plate will drip back to the evaporator. A wick is needed over the evaporator section, however, in order to uniformly distribute the liquid over the entire surface so to prevent dryout. The vapor chamber is an excellent candidate for use in electronic cooling applications especially with high heat flux applications, including desktops and servers. Vapor chambers are preferred over conventional heat pipes (CHP) for electronic cooling with heat fluxes higher than 50 W/cm2, since heat flow is two or three dimensional, compared to one dimensional in CHPs. Furthermore, vapor chambers can be placed in direct contact with CPUs using thermal interface materials, thereby reducing the overall thermal resistance of heat sinks.


  1. Faghri, A., 2012, "Review and Advances in Heat Pipe Science and Technology," Journal of Heat Transfer, 134(12), 123001.
  2. Faghri, A., 1995, Heat Pipe Science and Technology, 1st ed., Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C.
  3. Mochizuki, M., Saito, Y., Kiyooka, F., and Nguyen, T., 2006, "High Power Cooling Chips by Heat Pipes and Advanced Heat Spreader," 8th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Kumamoto, Japan, 214-221.
  4. Mochizuki, M., Nguyen, T., Saito, Y., Kiyooka, F., and Wuttijumnong, V., 2007, "Advanced micro-channel vapor chamber for cooling high power processors," Proceedings of the ASME InterPack Conference, IPACK 2007, Vancouver, Canada, 695-702.
  5. Xiao, B., and Faghri, A., 2008, "A Three-Dimensional Thermal-Fluid Analysis of Flat Heat Pipes," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51(11-12), 3113-3126.