Hydro Energy Summary

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The ocean alone can fulfill all the energy needs of humans for a long time. Water is a clean source of energy, and environmental impacts are relatively limited. Among the drawbacks are the potential disturbances or destruction of some marine life and the interference with marine transport and shipping. For many, the installation of large wave-energy devices, overhead transmission lines, and their supporting facilities may not be aesthetically pleasing.

Except for the wave technologies, much of the hydropower potential in the developing countries has already been exploited. It appears that in the future, much of the hydropower development will be in developing countries especially in Asia and Africa where much of the world’s small scale and low head hydro capacity exists.


(1) Toossi Reza, "Energy and the Environment:Sources, technologies, and impacts", Verve Publishers, 2005

Further Reading

Bose, N. and Brooke, J., Wave Energy Conversion, Elsevier, 2003.

Ross, D., Energy from the Waves, Oxford University Press, 1995.

Cruz, J., Ocean Wave Energy: Current Status and Future Perspectives, Springer Series in Green Energy and Technology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008

International Journal of Wave Motion, Elsevier Science Publishing Company.

International Journal of Renewable Energy, Elsevier Science Publishing Company.

External Links

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Services Center (http://www.csc.noaa.gov).

European Commission on Tidal Energy (http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/atlas/htmlu/tidal.html).

OTEC, U.S. DoE, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (http://www.eere.energy.gov/RE/ocean.html).

Wave Energy Council: Survey of Energy Resources (http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/publications/reports/ser/wave/wave.asp).