External forced convection

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Convective heat and mass transfer is the process of heat and mass transport through fluid flow. Understanding the fundamentals of fluid mechanisms is an important part of predicting and modeling convective transfer problems[1]. In external forced convection, the fluid has at least one side that is not bounded by a solid surface. Flow over a flat plate is a classic example of external flow. The temperature of the fluid far away from the surface as well as a condition on the surface such as temperature, heat flux, or a combination are usually known.

One-dimensional steady-state convection and diffusion, multidimensional convection and diffusion problems, numerical solution of flow field, numerical simulation of interfaces and free surfaces, and application of computational methods
Turbulent boundary layer equations,algebraic models for eddy diffusivity, k-ε model, and momentum and heat transfer over a flat plate.


  1. Faghri, A., Zhang, Y., and Howell, J. R., 2010, Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer, Global Digital Press, Columbia, MO.


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