Back to Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems Home
Table of Contents
APPENDIX A CONSTANTS, UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Table A.1 Physical constants Universal gas constant Boltzmann constant Stefan-Boltzmann constant Atmospheric pressure Gravitational acceleration Ru = 8314.34 J/(kmol-K) kb = 1.38054 × 10−23 J/K σ SB = 5.67 × 10−8 W/(m 2 -K 4 ) patm = 1.013 × 105 Pa g = 9.807 m/s 2 Table A.2 Prefixes Factor 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 10 Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto deka Symbol E P T G M k h da Factor 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18 Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Symbol d c m μ n p f a 950 Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems Table A.3 Conversion factors Physical quantity Acceleration Area ft/s2 m/s2 ft 2 cm2 m2 lbm/in3 lbm/ft3 kg/m3 g/m3 Btu Btu Btu ft-lbf kW-h kcal kJ HP-h Btu/h-ft2 kcal/h-m2 cal/s-cm2 W/cm2 W/m2 W/m2 Btu/lbm J/kg lbf lbf kgf kgf N Btu/h-ft2-°F kcal/h-m2-°C W/m2-K W/m2-K ft2/h ft2/s m2/s m2/s m2/s in ft in mm m Conversion factor 0.30480 3.2808 0.092903 0.15500 10.764 1728.0 16.018 0.062428 62.428 1.0551 0.0002930 0.25200 0.0012851 3412.8 3.9683 0.94782 2544.4 3.1546 0.36867 13272.0 3170.0 0.8598 0.31700 2324.4 0.00043021 32.1740 4.448 2.2046 9.80665 0.22481 5.6782 0.20482 0.17611 0.8598 2.5807×10-5 0.092905 10000 38750 10.764 25.4 0.3048 0.08333 0.039370 3.2808 m/s2 ft/s2 m2 in2 ft2 lbm/ft3 kg/m3 lbm/ft3 lbm/ft3 kJ kW-h kcal Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu W/m2 Btu/h-ft2 Btu/h-ft2 Btu/h-ft2 kcal/h-m2 Btu/h-ft2 J/kg Btu/lbm lbm-ft/s2 N lbf N lbf W/m2-K Btu/h-ft2-°F Btu/h-ft2-°F kcal/h-m2-°C m2/s m2/s cm2/s(stokes) ft2/h ft2/s mm m ft in ft Density Energy Energy flux Enthalpy Force Heat transfer coefficient Kinematic viscosity (ν) Thermal diffusivity (α) Mass diffusivity (D) Length Appendix A Constants, Units, and Conversion Factors 951 Table A.3 Conversion factors (cont’d) Physical quantity Mass Mass flow rate Conversion factor 0.45359 2.2046 0.45359 3600 7936.6 2.2046 1.055 0.293 3.412 9.48×10-4 0.746 0.707 6895 1.013×105 14.696 105 1.000 133.32 27.68 0.4335 4.1868 1.000 0.23885 T(°C)=5/9[T(°F)-32] T(°F)=9/5 T(°C)+32 T(K)=T(°C)+273.15 T(°R)=T(°F)+459.67 1.7307 418.68 0.5778 0.30480 0.27778 1.609 1 0.1 1.4882 4.1338×10-4 0.67195 2419.08 1 0.001 0.02832 16.39 0.7646 35.313 Power Pressure Specific heat, specific entropy Temperature Thermal conductivity Velocity Viscosity Volume lbm kg lbm/h lbm/s kg/s kg/h Btu/s Btu/h W W HP HP psi atm atm bar torr torr psi ft-H2O Btu/lbm-°F kcal/kg-°C kJ/kg-K °F °C °C °F Btu/h-ft-°F cal/cm-s-°C W/m-K ft/s km/h mile/h kg/s-m posi lbm/s-ft lbm/h-ft N-s/m2 N-s/m2 L L ft 3 in3 y d3 m3 kg lbm kg/h lbm/h lbm/h lbm/h kW W Btu/h Btu/s kW Btu/s Pa Pa psi Pa mmHg Pa in H2O psi kJ/kg-K Btu/lbm-°F Btu/lbm-°F °C °F K °R W/m-K W/m-K Btu/h-ft-°F m/s m/s km/h N-s/m2 N-s/m2 N-s/m2 N-s/m2 lbm/s-ft lbm/h-ft dm3 m3 m3 cm3 m3 ft3 952 Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems Table A.3 Conversion factors (cont’d) Physical quantity Volume Conversion factor 3.785 4.546 0.4732 0.5683 4.7196×10-4 0.0028318 2118.8 10.35 0.0966 Volume flow rate Volumetric heat generation rate Gal (U.S.) Gal (IMP) Pint (U.S.) Pint (IMP) ft3/min ft3/s m3/s Btu/h-ft3 W/m3 L L L L m3/s m3/s ft3/min W/m3 Btu/h-ft3 Appendix A Constants, Units, and Conversion Factors 953