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A man travels the world in search of what he needs and returns home to find it. ~ George Augustus Moore (1852 - 1933) index C CAFTA (Central American Free Trade Agreement), 479 CAFÉ (Corporate Average Fuel Economy), 351, 425 Calorie (food calorie), 125, 130, 463, 474, 486 Cap and trade (See emission trading) Capital recovery factor, 398 Carbohydrates, 120, 126, 129, 135, 142, 143, 180, 487 Carbon cycle, 144 Carbon dating, 249, 487 Carbon dioxide capture and storage, 183 emission, 181, 183, 245, 261, 344, 347, 384, 430, 441 sequestration, 179, 345 Carbon monoxide, 2, 146, 183, 347, 350, 487 Carnot, Saadi, 99 Cartel, 376, 388 Catalytic converter, 196, 348, 487 conversion efficiency, 349 CFC (chlorofluorocarbon), Chaos (See entropy) Charge ignition (See engine, diesel) Chemical reactions, 144, 245 Chernobyl, 253, 258, 259, 275 China syndrome, 260 CHP (combined heat and power; See cogeneration) Clean Air Act, 350, 424, 479, 488 Coal combustion, 133, 145 consumption, 9 economics of, 383 environmental concern, 162, 179, 187, 384, 430 fluidized bed combustion, 495 A A-Bomb (See atomic bomb) Absolute temperature (See Thermodynamics, third law of) Acidity, 189, 504 Acid rain, 164, 185, 189, 430, 483 cost of, 383 Affluence, definition, 444 effect on the environment, 441, 446 relation to energy, 26 Agriculture, 27, 178, 229, 406, 449 effect of greenhouse gases, 181 Air conditioners, 97, 107, 302 Aircrafts, 337 Air pollutants criteria, 183, 197, 348, 384, 490 primary, 184, 508 secondary, 186, 510 Air pollution consequence of, 186 control, 195 cost, 183, 363, 415 effect on dinosaurs, 185 effect on health, 187, 191 emission standards, 196, 204 indoor, 192 outdoor, 183 sources, 173, 189, 373 Air quality index, 197 Aircrafts, 337 Albedo, 221, 481 Alcohols, 6, 134, 343, 344 Alpha particles, 276 Altitude, 220, 337, 483 Ampere (unit), 7, 301, 483 law, 322 Anaerobic digestion, 136, 483 Annuities, 396 Archimedes wave swing, 75 Asbestos, 194 thermal conductivity of, 88 Atom atomic mass number, 484 atomic mass, 484 atomic number, 482 structure of, 244, 246 Atomic bomb, 285, 465 Automobiles conversion efficiency, 100, 105 emissions from, 196, 347, 441 emission standards, 197, 350, history, 148, 338 Azimuth, 220, 484 B Bads, 389, 44 Band wagon effect, 447 Basal metabolic rate, 126, 142, 465, 479 Battery (See electric battery) Becquerel (unit), 276 Benefits (See revenues) Beta particles, 256, 279, 485 Binding energy, 244, 309 Biochemical conversion, 134 Biodiesel, 342, 476, 485 Biofuel, 135, 345, 449, 485 Biogas, 135 Biomass biochemical conversion (See fermentation) energy from, 133 from animal waste, 134 impacts, 384 power generation, 133 sources of, 119, 485 Biosphere II, 460 Bitumen, 163 BMI ( See body mass index) BMR (See basal metabolic rate) Body mass index, 132, 465 formation, 160 gasification, 345, 449 grade, 161 heating values, 146, 478 rank, 161 reserves, 158, 161 resources, 147, 161 strip-mining, 163 types of, 161 Coal gas, 160, 161 Coase theorem, 415 Coefficient of Performance, 108, 212, 479, 489 Cogeneration, 105, 195, 486 COLA (Cost of Living Adjustment), Condenser, 104, 224, 228, 487 Conservation of energy, (See thermodynamics, first law of) Consumer price index, 401, 479, 487 Contingent valuation, 420 Cooling tower, 104, 489 COP (See coefficient of performance) Cost external cost (See externality) fixed and variable, 379 marginal, 414, 502 CPI (See consumer price index) Critical mass, 276 curie (unit), 286 Dual economy (See economy, mixed) E D Demand, 376, Demand-side management, 14, 490 Depleted uranium, 251, 287, 490 Desalination, 229, 281, Diesel engine (See engine, diesel) Diesel oil, 342 Dirty bomb, 287, 291 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), doubling time, 11, 394, 444, 479, 491 Drag coefficient of, 334 wing, 49 466 Earth (the) geological structure, 206 gravity, 30, 37 physical constants, 471, 475 Ecological economists, 392, 413, 440 Economics mix (dual), 404 of energy, 375 of environment, 413 Efficiency Carnot, 487 combustion, 350 economic, 417 first-law, 101 metabolic, 129 second-law, 102 thermal, 109, 350 Efficiency standard, 414, 418 Efficient market, 375 Elasticity definition, 381 price elasticity, 382 Electric battery, 44, 306, 317, 361, 484 Electric generator, 308 Electric motors, 307, 354 Electric vehicles (See vehicles, electric) Electrical circuits, 300, 304, current, 7, 301 flow analogy, 306 health effect, 323 load, 310 power, 302 safety, 322 shock, 323 voltage, 301 Electrical capacity baseload, 311 capacity factor, 313 definition, 310 installed, 299, 311 load-leveling, 314, 319 peak, 311 Electrical energy (See electricity) Electricity distribution, 315 generation, 309 infrastructure, 320 storage, 316 transmission, 314 Electromagnetic pulse, 289 Electrostatic precipitator, 163, 196, 492 Emission trading, 425 EMP (See electromagnetic pulse) Energy consumption, 10 conversion, 94 definition, 3 demand, 8 flow in the biosphere, 123, 460 forms of, 5 mechanical (See mechanical energy) origin of, 4 reserves, 11 solar (See solar energy) supply, 8 thermal (See thermal energy) tidal (See tidal energy) units of , 6 waves (See wave energy) Energy efficiency ratio, 108, 212 Entropy, 96, 493 Environmental legislation (See regulation) Environmental protection benefits, 419 cost-benefit analysis, 419 economic impact, 421 in developing countries, 182, 431 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 196, 278, 350, 493 Equilibrium (See thermodynamics, zeroth law of) Ethanol, 135, 344, 352, 476, 493 Index EV (See electric vehicle) Existence value, 419 Exponential expiration time, 156, 477 Exponential growth, 11, 395, 443 Externality definition, 494 positive and negative, 382 Gamma rays, 90, 248, 276, 279, 288 Garbage (See municipal waste) Gasohol, 344, 350, 493 Gasoline combustion of gasoline, 345, 350 consumption in US, 334 fuel properties, 342 leaded, 348 prices, 1, 354, 378, 382, 388 reformulated, 342, 509 Gasoline engine (See internal combustion engines) GDP (See gross domestic products) Gearbox, 36, 50, 56 Geological dating (See carbon dating) Geothermal energy advantages of, 213 environmental concerns, 213 heat pumps, 211 hot dry rocks, 210, 497 power plants, 205 resources, 207, thermal reservoirs, 209 Global warming causes, 109, 176, combating, 179, consequences of, 162, 177, 441 controversy, 181 economics of, 182, 383 greenhouse gases, 174 physics of, 174 Globalization effect on environment, 431 phenomenon, 405 GNP (See gross national products) Golden rule of mechanics, 33 Good market and non-market, 389, 446 public and private, 389 vs. bads, 389, 482 Gravitational confinement, 264 Gravity, Newton’s law of, 72 Greenhouse gases, (See global warming) Greenpeace, 449 Gross domestic products, 26, 171, 392, 444, 480, 494 Gross national products, 26, 392, 411, 482 Gulf War (See Persian Gulf War) H F Farming (See agriculture) FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission), 320 Fermentation, 122, 134, 166, 344 Fission (See nuclear fission) Flywheel, 318 Food calorific values, 130 conversion efficiency, 129 diet and exercise, 129 energy content, 130, 134 food chain, 121 food web, 121 production, 125 Fossil fuels availability, 155 combustion of, 144 definition, 143 resources, 147, 165 Free riding, 390 Fuel additives, 348, 358 alternative, 352 conversion efficiency, 358, heating values, 146 nuclear, 5, 250 transportation fuels, 342 Fuel cell vehicles advantages of, 358 barriers to market, 358 emissions, 359, principal of operation, 356 reformers, 342, 357, 509 types, 357 Fusion (See nuclear fusion) G H-Bomb (See hydrogen bomb) Half-life, 12, 247, 497 Heat capacity, 87, 497 definition, 5, 85 relation to temperature, 86 relation to work, 99 specific, 127, 508 Heat engine efficiency of, 98 human, 128 ideal (Carnot), 99 operation, 97, 102 Heat pumps coefficient of performance, 108, 212 geothermal, 211 operation, 97, 107 Heat transfer by conduction, 88 by convection, 89 by radiation, 90 Hedonic regression, 420 Hiroshima, 280, 285, 290 Hot spot, 427 Hubbert, King, 157, 171 Hurricanes, 101 Hybrid vehicles advantages of, 363 air hybrids, 362, configurations, 336, 361, 365 efficiency, 360 history, 360 Hydrocarbons, 146, 342, 349 Hydroelectric design, 68 economics, 76 environmental concerns, 76 impounded, 67 467 power generation, 16, 30, 66, 230, 309, 495 pumped storage, 67, 316 run-of-river, 68, 311 Hydrogen as fuel, 318, 344, 352, 365, 476 cars, 353, 356 infrastructure, 455 isotopes, 246 properties of, 88, 106, 146, 471 safety, 345, 354, 358 storage, 316, 358 Hydrogen bomb, 288 L Latitude, 220, 498 Lead, 88, 135, 183, 186, 196, 247, 258, 279, 287, 348 Lead acid battery, 317, 354 Legislation (See regulation) Lever, 30, 35, 498 Life origin of, 128, 141 and the second law, 97 Life-cycle analysis, 460 Load duration curve, 312 Longitude, 220, 499 M Machines (simple), human as a machine, 34 Magma, 205, 211 Magnetism, magnetic confinement, 265 magnetic levitation, 334 Magneto hydrodynamic, 310, 480, 499 Malthus, Thomas, 1, 442 Manufacturing computer-aided, 448, 479 design for, 448 just-in-time, 448 Marine currents (See underwater currents) Market benefits, 420 efficient, 375 good (See good, market) shortage, 377, 378 surplus, 377 Mass transit, 333, 382 McKelvey box, 156 Mechanical advantage, 36 Mechanical efficiency, 36 Mechanical energy, 27 Metabolic equivalent, 131 Metabolism, 94, 126, 178, 500 Methane (See natural gas) Methanol, 134, 146, 343, 357, 476, 500 MHD (See magneto hydro- dynamics) Mighty Whale, (See waves, Mighty W hale) Mold, 195 Money, 391 Monopoly, Montreal Protocol, 192, 430, 500 Municipal solid waste, 133, 174, 449, 500 N I Imperfect competition, 385 Incineration, 133, 261, 446, 495 Inclined plane, 34 Inertial confinement, 265 Insolation (See solar insolation) Insulation, electrical, 323 Insulation, thermal, 90, 450 Internal combustion engines, 98 combustion efficiency, 348 diesel, 340 emissions, 346, 348 gas turbine, 341 gasoline, 339 rotary (Wankel), 339, 340 IPAT equation, 441 Iran, 1, 10, 149, 151, 158, 165, 194 Iraq war, 383, 401 Isotope, 246, 387, 497 J Japan, 265, 285 Joule heating, 102 Joule (unit), 7, 28, 473, 476, 499 K Kerogen, 144, 163, 497 Kerosene, 342, 497 Kilocalorie (See food calorie) Kinetic energy, 5, 29, 52 Kuwait,149, 150, 158, 287, 388 Kyoto Protocol, 180, 430, 468 NAFTA (North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement), 480, 501 Natural capital, 452 Natural gas associated, 164, 482 combustion of, 145, 245, 345 compressed, 343, 479 consumption of, effect on global warming, 179 liquefied, 165, 343, 352, 480 properties, 146, 343, 476 reforming, 345, 357 reserves, 158, 165 resources, 9, 134, 165 Neap tide, 70, 72, 503 Neoclassical economists, 439, 444 Net present value (See annuities) Neutron, 244 Neutron bomb, 288 Newton law of universal gravitation, 72, 301 unit, 7, 28 NNW (Net National Welfare), 392, 480 Non-market good (See good, nonmarket) Nuclear accidents, 258, 259, 261 Nuclear arsenals (See nuclear weapons) Nuclear energy, environmental aspects, 261 nuclear vs. chemical, 245 status, 15, 18, 261 Nuclear fission physics of, 248 Index Nuclear fusion cold fusion, 266 future of, 266 physics of, 262 problems with, 263 Nuclear radiation (See radiation) Nuclear reactors, 252 classification of, 255 control rods, 254 coolants, 254 fuel assembly, 254 fuel cycle, 250 gas-cooled, 256 heavy water reactors, 256 high temperature reactors, 256 fast breeder reactors, 256 moderator, 254 pebble bed reactors, 257 reactor core, 254 retiring, 258 safety, 258 Nuclear transmutation, 283 Nuclear war effects of, 289 Nuclear wastes disposal of, 282 sources, 281 Nuclear weapons design, 287 history, 284 international arms treaties, 290 proliferation, 290 terrorism, 292 depletion, 190 formation of, 186, 188 good and bad, 190 health effects, 192 hole (See ozone depletion) properties, 186, 190 tax) Population growth, 10, 442, 444 Potential energy , 29, 68, 73, 94, 301, 306, 507 Poverty, 404, 431, 452 Power control, 54 definition, 31 rating, 32, 303, 339 units of, 31 Power plants biomass, 133 cars as powerplants, 365 geothermal, 209 hydroelectric, 66 nuclear, 259 optimal size, 314 solar, 225, 230 thermal, 97, 102 tidal, 71 waves, 74 wind, 45 Private good (See good, private) Public good (See good, public) Pulley, 38 Pumped storage plants (See hydraulic, pumped storage) Pyrolysis, 134, 345 P O Ocean thermal energy conversion, 228 Ohm (unit), 301 Ohm’s law, 301 Oil shale, 163, 449, 505 OPEC, 1, 149, 505 Open access, 390, 413 Option value, 419 Oscillating water column, 74 OTEC (See ocean thermal energy conversion) Ozone P-n junction, 232 Pareto efficiency (See economic efficiency) Particulates, 184, 186, 196, 347, 350, 427, 506 Payments (cumulative value), 12, 395 Perfect competition (See market, efficient) Periodic table (of elements), 245 Persia (See Iran) Persian Gulf, 150, 506 Persian Gulf War (See Iraq War) Petrol (See gasoline) Petroleum, enhanced recovery, 153, 180, 345 exploration, 14, 147, 152 production midpoints, 158 products of distillation, 154 properties, 146 refining, 154 reserves, 156, 159 total endowment, 160 pH scale (See acidity) Photochemical smog (See smog, photochemical) Photosynthesis in air, 120, 507 in water, 121 Photovoltaics collection efficiency, 234 device, 231, 507 principle of operation, 232 spherical cells, 234 Plutonium, 247, 253, 280, 284, 285, 507 Pollution permit, 425 Pollution tax (See tax, pollution Q Quarks, 248 Quota, 404 R R-values, 510 Radiation anthropogenic (See man-made) biological damage, 276, 322 dosimetry, 277 electromagnetic, 90, 279, 322 exposure, 276 healthy, 282 ionizing, 275, 279 man-made, 276 sources, 274 thermal, 235 units of, 276 469 uses of, 280 Radiation sickness, 278 Radioactive decay, 247, 249, 275, 279, 384, 508 Radioactivity, 247 Radioisotopes (See isotopes) Radon, 194, 276 Rate of return, 396, 398 Reaction turbine, 69 Recycling, 137, 446 Reformers (See fuel cell vehicles, reformers) Refrigerator, 97, 107 Regulation command-and-control, 424 incentive-based, 425 monitoring and enforcement, 196, 427, 429 process-based, 427 Reserves, (See Energy reserves) Respiration, 122 Revenue marginal, 380 total, 380 Ring of fire, 207 Rio Earth Summit, 180 Rotary (Wankel) engine (See internal combustion engines, rotary) Rule of 10, 124 Run-of-river plants (See hydraulic, run-of-river) Russia, 10, 71, 149, 161, 165, 182, 252, 255, 260, 265, 275, 291, 443 S Safety standard, 414, 417 Salter’s duck (See wave energy, Salter’s duck) Saudi Arabia, 149, 150, 158, 388 Screw, 35, 510 Semiconductor, 233 Shale oil (See oil shale) Smog, classical, 187, 498 industrial (See smog, classical) photochemical, 188, 507 470 Snob effect, 447 Solar angles, 220 cells (See photovoltaics) chimney, 223 concentration ratio, 225 concentrator, 225, 227, 511 constant, 221, 473 cooling, 224 day, 70, 211, 502, 511 dish, 227 flat-plate collector, 224 furnace, 225 heating, active, 224 heating, passive, 223 heliostat, 226 hybrid system, 227 insolation, 220, 511 noon, 220, 511 power, 222, 231 power generation, 225, 242 power tower (See Solar One and Solar Two) room, 223 trough, 225, 226 wall, 511 Solar cells (See photovoltaic) Solar One and Solar Two, 226 Solar pond, 230 Solar position (See solar angles) Solar power satellite, 232, 511 Solar sail, 236 Spark ignition (See internal combustion engines) Spring tide, 70, 72, 511 State of charge, 482, 511 Sulfur oxides, 185, 187 Sun (the), 219 Supply and demand, law of , 376 Supply-side management, 14, 512 Sustainability criteria for, 451, 453 definition of, 439 Synfuel (See synthetic fuel) Synthetic fuel, 6, 119, 134, 512 T TapChan (See wave energy, Tapered Channel) Tar sands, 163, 449 Tariff, 404, 431 Tax, carbon tax, 3, 183, 455, 487 pollution tax, 385, 425, 455 sin, 410, 511 Tax reform, 455, 461 Technology impact, 441, 447 options, 14 Temperature, conversion formulas, 87 inversion (See thermal inversion) scale, Terrorism, 151, 292, 456 Thermal conductivity, 88, 512 Thermal devices, 97 Thermal energy (See heat) Thermal inversion, 188 Thermal pollution, 109, 173 Thermochemical conversion (See pyrolysis) Thermodynamics, first law of , 94 second law of, 95 third law of, 97 zeroth law of, 93 Thermophotovoltaics, 235 Three Mile Island, 258 Tidal current, 70, 513 Tidal energy, 70 Tidal period, 71, 513 Tides, 70, 72, 513 Tobacco, 194 Torque, 30 Trades barriers to, 376, 403, 405, 431 international, 401, 405 Transportation fuels (See fuel, transportation) modes of, 333, 360 social costs of, 363 Trust (See cartel) Turbine types Index impulse, 69 reaction, 69 underwater, 76 (See hydrocarbons) Volt (unit), cumulative, 395 present and future, 393, 398 U W UAE (See the United Arab Emirates) Ultracapacitor, 328 Ultraviolet, 98, 199 Underwater current, 81 Unit conversion, 497 United Arab Emirates, 149, 165 United States (the) biomass, 119, 133 coal resources, 161, consumption of energy, 8, electricity infrastructure, 320 energy reserves, 10, 158 geothermal resources, 205, 208 hydroelectric, 66 natural gas resources, 165 nuclear arms treaties, 290 nuclear reactors, 252 petroleum resources, 149, 157 tar sands resources, 163 transportation system, 333 uranium resources, 250 wind power capacity, 49 Uranium atomic structure, 244 depleted, 287 enrichment, 250 isotopes, 246 Use value, 419 V Veblen effect, 447 Vehicles alternative fueled, 352, 484 electric, 353 fuel cell, 357 land, 334 marine, 336 per capita, 432 power requirement, 333 hybrid, 360 VOC (volatile organic compounds) Watt (unit), 7, 514 Wave energy Archemides Wave Swing, 75 economics, 76 environmental concerns, 76 offshore systems, 75, marine currents (See underwater currents) Mighty Whale, 75 power generation, 74 Salter’s Duck, 76 siting, 76 surface, 73 Tapered Channel, 75 underwater currents, 74 underwater turbines, 76 Wavelength, 72, 90, 222 Wedge, 34, 514 Wheel and axle, 35 WHO (See World Health Organization) Wind circulation patterns, 46 electricity generation by wind, environmental concerns, 62 farms, 58 power, 50 Wind chill factor, 91, 514 Wind rose, 47 Wind turbines, 49 design, 51 generator, 55 hybrid systems, 56 power control, 54 power train, 56 safety, 57 size, 53 Work definition of, 27, 38, 502 unit of, 28 World Health Organization, 173, 196, 280, 481 Worth X Y X-rays, 90, 276, 289, 515 Yucca Mountain, 283, Z Zenith, 220, 515 Zeroth Law (See thermodynamics, zeroth law) Zirconium, 251, 257, 471 472