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Index A Ablation, 79, 298, 299, 300, 333, 334, 786 Absolute temperature, 14, 739, 744, 772, 785, 795, 831, 833, 835, 837, 904 Absorption, 67, 68, 131, 132, 319, 362, 444, 475, 766, 772, 775, 777, 783, 786, 787, 838-842, 844, 846, 848, 850, 851, 854, 855, 857, 858, 859, 861-863, 865, 873 Absorption band, 858, 859, 861, 865 Absorptivity, 754-768, 772, 774, 775, 777-789, 791, 792, 814, 841, 866, 871, 914, 915 Adhesion, 20, 21, 298 Adiabatic, 73, 157, 201, 204, 223, 241, 249, 250, 326, 334, 434, 458, 459, 462, 463, 478, 480, 511, 575, 586, 595, 658, 659, 662, 729, 733, 809, 854 Aluminum, 5, 402, 765, 789, 813, 880, 881, 907, 914, 915 Analogy, 41, 112, 214, 362, 364, 406, 407, 408, 410, 422, 426, 514, 641 Anisotropic, 29, 42, 170, 209, 210, 325 Annular fin, 220, 223, 224, 225, 227, 331 Annular flow, 205, 626, 654, 660 Archimedes number, 620 Atmospheric phenomena, 863 Averaging, 43, 90, 124, 145-150, 152, 161, 169, 174, 178, 182-186, 188, 189, 413, 479, 481 Axial conduction, 446, 459, 472, 487, 493, 495497 B Bessel function, 224, 227, 245, 468, 922, 923 Bessel function, modified, 224, 923 Binary diffusion coefficients, 899, 900 Bioheat equation, 225, 226 Biological, 1, 26, 62, 66, 68-70, 82, 207, 226, 227, 286, 287, 326, 335 Biomedical, 62, 66, 67, 786 Biot number, 240, 244, 262, 288, 303, 304, 469, 470 Blackbody, 31, 32, 741-755, 756, 758, 767, 775, 777, 784, 789, 815, 850, 871, 872 Blackbody fraction, 748, 815 Blasius equation, 354, 433 Blowing, 87, 346, 360, 362, 365, 368, 369, 372, 411, 412, 418, 421, 433, 434, 435, 655 Body force, 37, 38, 40, 42, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 104, 105, 113, 114, 139, 152, 172, 195, 196, 339, 343, 388, 400, 515, 518, 585 Boiling, 2, 6, 30, 50, 52, 56, 57, 76, 79, 592-596, 611, 612, 653, 654, 665-738, 899, 903 critical heat flux, 666, 668, 669, 701, 702, 703, 704, 705, 707, 736 film boiling, 56, 57, 666, 668, 669, 681, 701, 705, 706, 707, 709-731, 733, 734, 736, 737 forced convective boiling, 665 nucleate boiling, 595, 596, 665-673, 675, 681, 687, 691, 694-707, 731, 732, 733, 734, 735, 736 pool boiling, 56, 665-669, 680, 691, 696, 705, 706, 707, 708, 709, 730, 732, 733, 735, 736 saturated boiling, 666, 703 subcooled boiling, 666, 716, 737 Boiling point line, 592, 593, 594, 595 Boltzmann constant, 11, 13, 22, 137, 316, 321, 742, 876 Boltzmann equation, 14, 19, 20, 24, 79, 150 Bond number, 51, 52 Boundary layer, 59, 86, 122, 123, 183, 190, 195, 197, 258, 341-361, 364, 369-375, 406, 409, 411-472, 475, 499, 500, 505, 512, 515-517, 519-531, 533-550, 555, 557, 559-561, 571, 573, 576, 577, 584, 585, 587-589, 592, 593, 610-612, 615, 616, 623, 637, 656, 658, 666, 682, 685, 709, 710, 716 approximation, 341, 343, 344, 345, 347, 360, 433, 616, 709 Index 925 Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, and John Howell Copyright © 2010 Global Digital Press equations, 122, 123, 350-352, 357, 360, 370, 375, 406, 412, 430, 433, 573, 576, 716 thermal boundary layer, 197, 258, 357-359, 372, 427, 441, 472, 515, 516, 520-522, 524526, 529, 531, 533, 534, 536, 541, 544, 546, 549, 557, 559, 571, 587, 593, 666, 682, 710 turbulent boundary layers, 426, 431, 499 velocity boundary layer, 515, 516, 519, 526, 541, 587, 709 Boussinesq assumption, 105, 518 Brinkman number, 52, 485, 489, 490, 494 Bubble detachment, 668, 685 Bubble dynamics, 666, 675, 694 Bubble growth, 665, 666, 672, 675-688, 691, 694, 695, 698, 730, 733-736 Bulk motion, 30, 32, 209 Buoyancy forces, 518, 523, 680 Burnout point, 669 C Carbon nanotube, 77 Carnot engine, 769 Cell, 38, 44, 47, 62-69, 79-82, 87, 88, 167, 177, 202, 204, 225, 264, 265, 331, 396-402, 404, 405, 482, 564, 773, 887, 905, 906 Characteristic length, 17, 31, 50, 85, 170, 171, 240, 254, 262, 282, 285, 314, 378, 543, 546, 550, 551, 562, 618, 625, 634, 698, 703 Checkerboard pressure field, 389, 390 Chemical reactions, 63, 71, 100, 112, 113, 207, 225, 408, 596 Circular tubes, 440, 450, 475, 513 Clausius-Clapeyron equation, 24, 677 Combustion, 3, 44, 63, 64, 70, 71, 82, 90, 138144, 190, 199, 362, 408-410, 412, 430, 597, 744, 779, 786, 814, 838, 854, 859, 862, 867, 874 Concentration boundary layer, 343, 344, 409, 439 Concentration gradient, 29, 35, 36, 37, 96, 101, 113, 129, 130, 515, 612 Concentric cylinders, 555, 569, 584, 589, 800, 802, 913 Concentric spheres, 571, 589, 913 Condensation, 2, 7, 22, 30, 50, 52, 55, 56, 125, 127, 128, 133, 135, 199, 346, 363, 444, 482, 590- 661, 663, 666, 680, 730-732, 735 dropwise, 590, 591, 598-609, 653-655 filmwise, 590, 591, 598, 602-604, 608, 609, 615, 634 forced convective condensation, 640 heterogeneous condensation, 590-592 homogeneous condensation, 592 immiscible fluids, 594 turbulent film condensation, 598, 621, 629, 654, 656 Condensers, 444, 610 Conduction, 1, 2, 20, 28, 41, 45, 47, 48, 51, 52, 59-61, 63, 77, 81, 84, 96, 104, 109, 111, 122, 123, 127, 170, 180, 195, 199, 205, 209338, 341, 357, 375, 402, 417, 432, 436, 446448, 451, 454, 459, 472, 476, 480, 487, 493, 495, 496, 497, 509, 510, 516, 557, 558, 560, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 571, 573, 574, 575, 586, 590, 595, 598, 602, 603, 604, 605, 606, 607, 608, 617, 624, 631, 643, 644, 649, 650, 651, 652, 659, 675, 681, 692, 697, 701, 703, 716, 739, 742, 766, 772, 781, 792, 808, 813, 821-824, 826, 828, 831, 848, 850, 852, 867, 873, 887, 922, 923, 924 Fourier’s law, 41 shape factor, 237, 238, 328, 797 steady-state conduction, 104, 221, 265, 270, 272, 287 transient conduction, 240, 241, 244, 258, 263-265, 270-274, 331, 436, 598, 697, 781 Configuration factor, 796, 797, 799-804, 806, 807, 810, 814-817, 819, 820, 823, 824, 832, 848, 867-869, 875, 911, 912, 913, 915 Conservation of energy, 448 Conservation of mass, 90, 93, 100-111, 137, 151, 164, 184, 187, 198, 279, 440, 478, 625, 655, 692, 693, 711 Conservation of momentum, 479 Conservation of species, 100, 101, 111, 112, 117, 156, 163, 164, 187, 208, 461, 519 Contact thermal resistance, 217, 218, 329 Continuity equation, 20, 97, 99-103, 107, 110, 116, 134, 139, 142, 150, 151, 157, 161, 162, 165, 169, 172, 179, 181, 184, 185, 187, 188, 192, 195, 201, 202, 207, 208, 309, 345, 346, 348, 360, 366, 370-372, 376, 378, 387, 390, 392-394, 397, 398, 437, 440, 477, 481, 485, 518, 519, 522, 527, 533, 613, 616, 676, 692, 712, 720, 721 Control volumes, 90, 94, 97, 264, 267, 268, 383, 391 Convection, 2, 28-30, 32, 35, 41, 42, 48, 49, 5155, 58, 70, 78, 85, 87, 101, 105, 108, 111, 112, 179, 190, 192, 199, 209, 216, 217, 220- 926 Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, and John Howell Copyright © 2010 Global Digital Press 223, 239-242, 244, 265, 266, 276, 279, 281, 284, 291, 304, 305, 309, 323, 325, 326, 332, 333, 339-589, 593, 595, 598, 604, 616, 619, 623, 640, 650, 653, 658, 660, 665-668, 675, 681, 685, 694, 696-698, 715, 716, 718, 733, 736, 737, 739, 742, 745, 766, 772-774, 776, 787, 788, 795, 808, 809, 813, 821, 822, 831, 852, 866, 894, 898 boundary layer, 59, 86, 122, 123, 183, 190, 195, 197, 258, 341-361, 364, 369-375, 406, 409, 411-472, 475, 499, 500, 505, 512, 515517, 519-531, 533-550, 555, 557, 559-561, 571, 573, 576, 577, 584, 585, 587-589, 592, 593, 610-612, 615, 616, 623, 637, 656, 658, 666, 682, 685, 709, 710, 716 forced convection, 30, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 325, 339-510, 515-589, 604, 640, 666, 698, 716, 733, 772 free convection, 30, 54, 55, 583, 584, 585, 665, 666, 696, 715, 745, 773, 809, 866 Reynolds analogy, 408 Reynolds number, 50-52, 61, 123, 153, 155, 170, 183, 190, 197, 419, 426, 438, 440, 456, 472, 485, 501-503, 507, 508, 520, 521, 529, 609, 618, 619-622, 626, 627, 628, 631, 633, 636, 641, 642, 644-649, 698 thermal boundary layer, 197, 258, 357-359, 372, 427, 441, 472, 515, 516, 520-522, 524526, 529, 531, 533, 534, 536, 541, 544, 546, 549, 557, 559, 571, 587, 593, 666, 682, 710 thermal convection, 585 turbulent boundary layers, 426, 431, 499 velocity boundary layer, 515, 516, 519, 526, 541, 587, 709 Convection heat transfer coefficient, 87 Convection mass transfer coefficient, 41 Convergence, 308, 394, 405, 491, 777, 820, 826, 827 Cooling, electronics, 71, 515, 517 Cooling tower, 156, 157, 555 Couette flow, 25, 114, 196, 513 Cylinder, 30, 54, 55, 57, 84, 87, 122, 174, 212, 213, 216, 226, 233-238, 244, 264, 300-302, 326, 328, 330, 334, 335, 336, 360, 517, 526, 543, 544, 545, 546, 549, 550, 551, 555, 569573, 584, 585, 588, 589, 634, 635, 641, 656, 657, 701, 717, 737, 784, 800, 802, 805, 809, 812, 856, 857, 861, 874, 913 Cylindrical coordinate system, 192, 198, 234, 300, 325, 499, 544, 554, 657, 660, 692, 918, 922, 923 D Darcy’s law, 170, 171, 175, 176, 177, 178, 201, 202, 479 Dew point, 88, 138, 141, 592-595, 609 Dew point line, 592, 593, 594, 595 Dielectric constant, 760, 761, 762 Dielectric materials, 760, 762 Diffusion, 14, 23, 29, 30, 32-42, 44, 52, 63, 65, 66, 70, 79, 85, 87, 101, 111-113, 118, 129, 131, 132, 137, 148, 156, 191, 204, 205, 309, 314, 318, 339, 340, 343, 346, 347, 351, 375, 376, 378, 380, 385, 388, 397, 398, 402, 406, 408, 420, 423, 424, 431, 449, 459, 462, 470, 471, 472, 477, 481, 499, 521, 522, 597, 598, 611, 848, 850, 853, 854, 873, 899-902, 910, 918 Diffusion coefficients, 63, 481, 899, 900, 901, 902, 910 Dimensional analysis, 2, 48, 49, 60, 438, 703, 863 Dimensionless numbers, 51- 57, 438, 625, 626 Discretization, 264, 265, 270, 276, 306, 307, 375, 376, 378, 382-384, 387-391 Divergence, 27, 102, 103, 148, 400, 721, 827, 847, 917 Dropwise condensation, 590, 591, 598-609, 653655 Dufour effect, 29, 108, 111, 116, 518 Dynamic viscosity, 25, 170, 171, 614 E Eckert number, 52, 116 Eddy, 78, 182, 184, 189, 190, 413-416, 420, 422, 423, 428, 499, 501, 503, 505, 506, 627, 630, 633 Electromagnetic spectrum, 740 Electromagnetic waves, 31, 739, 740, 778 Elliptic equations, 474 Emission, 31, 68, 323, 741-744, 746, 748-751, 758, 762, 777, 784, 787, 794, 824, 838, 839, 841, 842, 844-846, 848, 862, 863, 865, 866 Emissive power, 31, 32, 742, 743, 744, 747, 748, 749, 752, 753, 789, 832, 833, 834, 836, 850 Emissivity, 32, 328, 717, 718, 737, 751-759, 762-769, 772, 774, 777, 778, 780, 781, 789- Index 927 Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, and John Howell Copyright © 2010 Global Digital Press 792, 794, 796, 809, 812, 814, 815, 818, 823, 863, 867, 871, 872, 914, 915 Empirical correlation, 41, 77, 152, 153, 155, 501, 502, 503, 507, 540, 550, 551, 555, 564, 571, 587, 588, 598, 621, 627, 634, 641, 647, 649, 698, 699 Enclosure, 30, 517, 555, 556, 557, 559-568, 572, 575-577, 579, 580, 583, 584, 586, 589, 741, 742, 773, 788, 799, 801, 802, 804-808, 810812, 814, 816-818, 830, 834, 854, 857, 862, 867, 868, 870, 912 Energy carrier, 45, 46, 314, 315 Energy generation, 71 Energy source, 62, 65, 792, 835 Energy storage, 62, 276, 279, 282, 291, 300, 325, 572, 575, 898 Enthalpy, 7, 21, 22, 29, 37, 107, 108, 117, 121, 127, 139, 140, 144, 159, 163, 179, 195, 279, 304-309, 311, 312, 323, 325, 336, 398, 403, 480, 775, 877, 899, 903, 909 Entropy, 22, 90, 99, 110, 878 Entry region, 53, 441, 467 Environmental radiation, 771, 784 Equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD), 47 Error function, 256, 286, 288 Evaporation, 5, 7, 30, 51, 55, 58, 63, 76, 87, 119, 120, 125, 127-129, 131, 144, 157, 164, 197, 199-201, 206, 346, 362, 401, 402, 404, 406, 432, 435, 444, 482, 590, 591, 593, 595, 596599, 601, 603, 605, 607, 609, 611, 613, 615, 617, 619, 621, 623, 625, 627, 629, 631, 633, 635, 637, 639, 641, 642-655, 657, 659, 661666, 670, 673, 674, 680, 686, 691, 695, 696, 697, 698, 702, 709, 714, 722, 723, 725, 727729, 732, 733, 735, 777 Excess temperature, 222, 226-228, 230, 232, 235, 236, 239, 241, 256, 522, 666, 667, 668, 672, 705, 707, 709, 736 Explosive boiling, 76, 79, 731 Exponential scheme, 381, 383, 385 Extended surfaces, 212, 220-222, 226, 239, 266 External convection, 339-433, 467, 468, 519, 526, 551, 555 Extrinsic average velocity, 169, 175 Extrinsic phase average, 147, 172 F False diffusion, 388 Fiber optics, 783 Fick's law, 41 Film boiling, 56, 57, 666, 668, 669, 681, 701, 705, 706, 707, 709-731, 733, 734, 736, 737 Filmwise condensation, , 590, 591, 598, 602604, 608, 609, 615, 634 Finite difference method, 304, 720 Finite volume method, 265, 341, 438, 481 Fins, 220, 222 annular fin, 220, 223-225, 227, 331 pin fin, 220, 223 straight fin, 220, 326 First law of thermodynamics, 8, 95 Fixed mass, 91, 94 Fluid mechanics, 1, 25, 63, 71, 90, 402, 580, 586, 730, 734, 917, 918 Forced convection, 30, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 325, 339-510, 515-589, 604, 640, 666, 698, 716, 733, 772 Fourier number, 52, 241, 262, 272, 331 Fourier’s law, 41 Free molecular flow regime, 24 Free stream velocity, 123, 342, 343, 345, 347, 349, 352, 355, 358-360, 429, 519 Freezing, 69, 286, 287, 323-335, 573, 575, 777, 871 Friction coefficient, 195, 355, 358, 361, 373, 406-408, 411, 426, 430, 435, 440, 445, 453, 500, 502, 503, 508 Front tracking methods, 397 Froude number, 52 G Gas diffusion layer, 65, 66, 87, 204, 205 Gas emittance values, 857 Gauss-Seidel iteration, 275 Generalized Fick equation, 37 Generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations, 37 Grashof number, 51, 52, 521, 523, 528, 540, 722 Gray surfaces, 807, 814, 857 Greenhouse gases, 865, 866 H Hagen-Rubens equation, 764 Heat capacity, 180, 304, 305, 310, 311, 313, 316, 321, 701, 830 Heat equation, 123, 780 Heat exchangers, 1, 205, 438, 450, 681 Heat flux, critical, 666, 668, 669, 701, 702, 703, 704, 705, 707, 736 Heat pipes, 1, 23, 44, 48, 72-74, 78-81, 88, 137, 167, 174, 191, 202, 308, 450, 477-482, 488, 928 Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, and John Howell Copyright © 2010 Global Digital Press 509, 626, 653, 654, 659, 660, 668, 697, 730, 731, 737, 738 Heat sinks, 483 Hemispherical emissivity, 752, 753, 774, 789, 914, 915 Hemispherical spectral emissivity, 752, 762, 763 Hemispherical total absorptivity, 755 Henry’s constant, 131, 899, 906 Heterogeneous bubble growth, 679 Heterogeneous condensation, 590, 591, 592 Heterogeneous evaporation, 643 Heterogeneous nucleation, 590, 670 Heterogeneous reaction, 113, 131 Homogeneous bubble growth, 675 Homogeneous condensation, 592 Hybrid scheme, 379, 380, 381, 437 Hydraulic diameter, 66, 73, 451, 484, 502, 513 Hyperbolic equations, 121 I Ideal gas, 4, 11, 13-15, 24, 37, 84, 108, 118, 120, 130, 139, 172, 422, 479, 587, 611, 614, 638, 642, 661, 671, 861, 900 Incident radiation, 754, 756, 761, 763, 775, 778, 805 Incompressible, 4, 16, 42, 49, 97, 102-105, 108110, 114, 123, 169, 172, 174, 179, 184, 192, 195-197, 206, 209, 309, 364, 375, 388, 394, 402,430, 431, 438, 439, 440, 446, 454, 459, 471, 479, 485, 486, 512, 518, 519, 556, 573, 576, 676, 720, 721 Information technology, 1, 62, 71, 314 Infrared sensing, 785 Initial conditions, 241, 245, 247-249, 256, 262, 276, 294, 321, 328, 334, 534, 651, 683, 684 Insulation, 216, 669, 751, 771, 812, 813, 880 Integral approximate solution, 60, 254, 258-260, 289, 291, 292, 295, 300, 330, 333, 375 Intensity, 68, 75, 76, 154, 183, 221, 237, 326, 335, 553, 554, 745-747, 750, 754, 756, 758, 779, 780, 796, 798, 838-850, 853, 854, 863, 865 Interfaces, 89, 90, 93, 99, 101, 124, 152, 155, 156, 162, 217, 278, 395, 436, 480, 481, 599, 653, 667, 739 Intermolecular force, 10, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21 Internal energy, 8, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, 95, 96, 97, 107, 135, 193, 194, 205, 739, 740, 741, 742, 754, 839, 857, 916 Internal flow, 339, 422, 438, 443, 445, 475, 476, 477, 500 circular tubes, 440, 450, 475, 513 constant heat flux, 443, 444, 449, 450, 452, 456, 458, 473, 475, 482, 488, 489, 491, 492, 494, 497, 498, 503, 508, 511, 513, constant wall temperature, 442, 444, 449, 452, 453, 454, 456, 457, 458, 472, 473, 475, 485, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 497, 498, 509, 511, 512, 514 energy balance, 448, 482 flow conditions, 446 friction factor, 439, 441, 445, 484, 501, 502, 507 fully developed, 50, 175, 195, 196, 402, 438, 439-449, 451-460, 462, 464, 466, 469, 470, 477, 484-487, 489-497, 499, 500, 503, 504, 511-514 mean temperature, 442-444, 447, 450, 455, 458, 462, 465, 489, 491, 498, 504, 511, 513, 567, 571, 719 mean velocity, 439, 443, 445, 459, 486, 501, 502, 508 temperature profile, 442, 444, 447, 448, 449, 451-454, 456, 470, 485, 489, 490, 491, 493, 495, 497, 498, 499, 503, 505, 511, 512 turbulent flow, 440, 441, 485, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503, 505, 514 velocity profile, 439- 441, 445, 448, 450, 451, 454, 459, 470, 475, 485, 486, 487, 493, 496, 500, 501, 505, 507 Intrinsic phase average, 147, 157, 172, 204 Inverse problems, 828, 829, 831, 837 Irradiation, 321, 754, 756, 805, 806, 817 Isothermal surfaces, 543 Isotherms, 122, 234-237, 562, 566, 570, 571, 792 Isotropic, 26, 28, 29, 42, 47, 104, 170, 210, 325, 334, 479, 573, 844, 848, 863, 873 Iterations, 269, 275, 276, 308, 482, 633, 827, 828 J Jakob number, 51, 52, 636, 678, 679, 685 Jets, 559, 560, 563, 595 Jump conditions, 90, 101, 124, 198, 199, 492, 720 K Kapitza number, 52, 647 Kelvin, 901 Index 929 Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, and John Howell Copyright © 2010 Global Digital Press Kinetic energy, 10-16, 52, 128, 135, 149, 183, 187, 189, 190, 204, 208, 422, 423 Knudsen layer, 781, 782 Knudsen number, 23, 52, 483, 484, 485, 487, 489-491, 497 Kutateladze correlation, 656 L Lagrangian approach, 89, 90 Laminar falling film, 646, 647 Laminar film condensation, 598, 610-612, 615, 617, 618, 622-634, 636, 647, 653, 654, 657 Laminar flow, 27, 123, 170, 181, 182, 196, 206, 309, 345, 347, 349, 351, 355, 369, 370, 402, 413, 424, 426, 435, 438, 439, 440, 445, 446, 447, 452, 453, 454, 456, 457, 459, 485, 496, 499, 500, 509, 510, 511, 513, 533, 540, 610, 615, 616, 619, 626, 627, 642, 645, 647, 656, 696, 773 Laser, 18, 44, 45, 68, 74-76, 79, 80, 82, 83, 256, 276, 314, 316, 318, 319, 320, 321, 323, 324, 338, 741, 779-782, 784, 787, 788, 792, 838 Latent heat, 3, 5, 6, 7-9, 18, 21, 22, 24, 50, 58, 62, 63, 86, 127, 144, 191, 200, 276, 279, 282, 287, 291, 306, 310, 321, 325, 333, 363, 364, 398, 409, 411, 412, 434, 459, 460, 463, 482, 572, 575, 609, 614, 617, 619, 622, 625, 635, 650, 654, 658, 667, 675, 708, 714, 719, 896, 897 Latent heat of fusion, 6, 7, 9, 18, 86, 321 Lattice waves, 46 Law of the wall, 419, 421, 500, 502 Leidenfrost phenomena, 666, 722 Lewis number, 52, 142, 409, 410, 460, 462, 466 Light pipe, 783, 792 Line-by-line method, 275, 276 Liquid metals, 211, 358, 446, 470, 523, 898 Local heat flux, 315, 455, 516, 690, 795 Lumped analysis, 238, 240 M Macroscopic (integral) formulation, 90, 93 Mass diffusion, 34-36, 38, 85, 137, 156, 340, 343, 346, 351, 470, 598 Mass diffusivity, 40, 142, 342, 375, 414, 442, 459, 462, 467, 877 Mass flow rate, 7, 30, 55, 93, 142, 143, 153, 193, 199, 200, 387, 402, 404, 508, 609, 617, 620, 624, 625, 640, 642, 644, 648, 656, 662, 713, 714, 771, 775, 878 Maxwell-Stefan diffusivity, 29, 36 Mean free path, 11, 12, 14-16, 19, 23, 24, 45, 46, 47, 52, 77, 84, 181, 317, 416, 422, 483, 484, 840, 848, 864 Mean temperature, 442-444, 447, 450, 455, 458, 462, 465, 489, 491, 498, 504, 511, 513, 567, 571, 719 Mean velocity, 12, 53, 168, 182, 183, 185, 426, 439, 443, 445, 459, 486, 501, 502, 508 Mechanical energy balance equation, 106 Melting, 2, 5, 6, 8, 21, 22, 30, 52, 57, 59, 74, 75, 85, 86, 133, 198, 212, 276-289, 291, 293296, 298, 300-302, 304-307, 310, 311, 313, 319, 320, 321, 323-325, 332-337, 363, 517, 572, 575, 576, 579, 580, 583, 584, 586, 669, 775, 791, 898 Membrane, 65, 67, 204, 205, 599 Metabolic heat generation, 225, 266, 326 Metals, 63, 80, 82, 132, 211, 324, 358, 446, 470, 523, 669, 740, 763, 764, 765, 766, 898, 914, 915 Microscale heat transfer, 2, 20, 44, 45, 80, 81, 82, 314, 325, 483, 510 Microscale phase change, 319 Mixed convection, 85, 898 mixtures, 19, 27, 36, 38, 85, 133, 594, 605, 838, 859, 862, 867, 868, 899, 901, 909 Molar concentration, 29, 33, 35, 85, 87, 112, 614, 638 Molecular dynamic simulation, 2, 150, 395 Molecular mass, 4, 16, 26, 27, 33, 36, 40, 613, 641, 699, 700, 701, 904 Molecular velocity, 11, 12, 16, 19, 182 Momentum equations, 95, 119, 158, 162, 165, 169, 171, 179, 186, 187, 189, 202, 347, 388, 389, 390, 400, 402, 404, 444, 481, 485, 542, 616, 682 Moving boundary problem, 278, 323 Multimode heat transfer, 821 Multiphase systems, 2, 20, 25, 43, 48, 51, 80, 90, 148, 150, 191, 430, 653, 731, 922 Mushy zone, 277, 278, 310, 312 N Nanofluid, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 338 Nanoparticle, 77, 78, 338 Nanoscale, 20, 43, 44, 48, 74, 79, 80, 81, 82, 123, 739, 757, 760, 780, 786, 787 Nanoscale surface modification, 780, 787 Nanotube, 77 930 Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, and John Howell Copyright © 2010 Global Digital Press Nanowire, 80 Natural convection, 30, 49, 52, 85, 105, 281, 284, 291, 304, 305, 323, 325, 332, 333, 339, 341, 438, 444, 474, 515-589, 667, 668, 697, 698, 733, 772, 773 cylinder, 517, 526, 543, 544, 545, 546, 549551, 555, 569-573, 584, 585, 588, 589 external natural convection, 517, 519, 526, 529, 530 in rectangular cavity, 567, 575, 580, 585 sphere, 543, 549, 550, 551, 569, 571, 589 turbulent, 516, 533, 537, 538-541, 580, 583-586, 588 vertical surface, 526, 543, 583 Navier-stokes equation, 20, 23, 24, 123, 150, 341, 342, 375, 402, 438, 483 Newtonian fluid, 25, 42, 105, 433, 439, 454, 471, 512 Noncondensable gas, 137, 599, 615, 636, 637, 638, 639, 640, 641, 642, 661, 670, 672, 673 Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, 47 Nongray surfaces, 32, 814 Nonmetallic solids, 880, 886 Nonparticipating medium, 716 Nucleate boiling, 595, 596, 665, 666, 667, 668, 669-702, 704, 705, 706, 707, 731-736 Nusselt number , 31, 50, 52-58, 86, 155, 196, 197, 357, 358, 359, 361, 367, 368, 426, 427, 429, 430, 434, 435, 438, 449-453, 455, 457, 462, 465-470, 472-474, 485, 489, 490-495, 497, 498, 508, 511-514, 521, 524, 526, 529, 530, 533, 535, 536, 537, 539, 540, 542, 543, 546, 549, 550, 561, 563, 565, 567, 568, 587, 588, 615, 616, 618, 620, 626, 628, 632, 634, 698, 715, 717, 719, 773 O One-dimensional steady-state conduction, 265 One-region problem, 276, 283, 289, 290, 333 Opaque surface, 750, 756, 757, 758 Open system, 90 Optical pyrometer, 785, 862 Ordinary diffusion, 37, 101, 113 Orthotropic, 210 P Packed beds, 171, 174 Parabolic equations, 474 Peclet number, 52, 376, 378, 379, 381-383, 391, 436, 437, 446, 477, 485, 685 Penetration depth, thermal, 59, 60, 258, 259, 260, 261, 289, 290, 294-296, 298, 330, 334 Perfusion, 209, 225, 266 Phase change, 2, 5, 6-9, 18, 21, 22, 30, 31, 50, 52, 75, 76, 83, 85, 88, 124, 148, 151, 156, 161, 163, 164, 169, 198, 206, 207, 211, 212, 276-280, 282, 284, 287, 289, 300, 304, 309, 310-314, 319, 321, 323, 325, 332, 334, 336, 346, 362, 363, 398, 408, 475, 517, 572, 573, 576, 579, 583, 603, 655, 665, 668, 681, 691, 693, 721, 722, 732, 735, 875, 895, 897, 898 Phonons, 20, 45-48, 77, 81, 209, 315, 316, 318 Photon, 20, 31, 44, 45, 319, 857, 858 Planck distribution, 742 Plumes, 517, 526, 584 Pollution, 865 Pool boiling, 56, 665-669, 680, 691, 696, 705709, 730, 732, 733, 735, 736 666, 667, 669, 705 regimes, 666 Porosity, 68, 167-169, 171-175, 180, 479, 481 Porous media, 2, 43, 90, 167, 169-176, 179-181, 190-192, 201, 205, 339, 477, 479 Prandtl number, 50, 52, 88, 155, 357-359, 426, 437, 438, 446, 456, 470, 472, 475, 500, 506, 512, 514, 515, 521-526, 529, 530, 532, 534, 535-537, 540, 544, 550, 551, 554, 573, 576, 580-582, 585, 587, 631, 633, 649, 889-893 Pressure correction equation, 391, 394 Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), 65 Q Quanta, 31 Quantum theory, 742 Quiescent fluid, 515, 516, 517, 520, 525, 538, 541, 546, 555 R Radiation, 1, 2, 28, 31, 32, 45, 48, 51, 71, 82, 87, 96, 217, 265, 266, 333, 564, 589, 668, 711, 716-718, 737-875, 911, 913, 915 absorptivity , 754-6, 766-768, 772, 774, 775, 777-789, 791, 792, 814, 841, 866, 871, 914, 915 blackbody, 31, 32, 741-756, 758, 767, 775, 777, 784, 789, 815, 850, 871, 872 configuration factor, 796, 797, 799-804, 806, 807, 810, 814-817, 819, 820, 823, 824, 832, 848, 867-869, 875, 911, 912, 913, 915 Index 931 Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, and John Howell Copyright © 2010 Global Digital Press emissivity, 32, 328, 717, 718, 737, 751-759, 762-769, 772, 774, 777, 778, 780, 781, 789792, 794, 796, 809, 812, 814, 815, 818, 823, 863, 867, 871, 872, 914, 915 environmental radiation, 771, 784 incident, 741, 742, 746, 750, 754-758, 760, 761, 763, 767, 772, 774, 775, 777, 778, 780782, 784, 791-794, 796, 797, 799, 800, 803, 805, 806, 838, 841, 843, 847, 871 intensity, 745, 746, 747, 750, 754, 756, 758780, 796, 798, 838-850, 853, 854, 863, 865 Irradiation, 321, 754, 756, 805, 806, 817 Kirchhoff's law, 755, 756, 757, 759, 762, 763, 794, 841 Planck distribution, 742 Stefan-Boltzmann law, 744 Wien's displacement law, 744 Radiation heat transfer coefficient, 795 Radiation shields, 812 Radiative transfer, 20, 739, 745, 758, 760, 780, 781, 784, 794, 804, 807, 808, 809, 812, 813, 829, 830, 838, 841, 844, 845, 847, 848, 850, 857, 862 Radiosity, 805, 806, 807, 808, 814, 815, 817, 818, 820, 821, 862, 863, 870, 871 Random motion, 11, 28, 209, 339, 422 Rate equations, 41 Rayleigh number, 52, 523, 530, 537, 541, 543, 546, 550, 551, 561, 563, 564, 568, 570, 571, 575, 579, 581, 582, 585, 586, 588 Rayleigh scattering, 863, 864, 865 Reciprocity relation, 209, 798, 799 Reference velocity, 109, 520, 521 Reflection, 741, 756, 758, 761, 779, 782, 783 Reflectivity, 320, 756, 757-759, 761-763, 765, 766, 782-786, 789, 790, 793 Refractive index, 760, 762, 763, 765, 766, 779, 783, 784, 789, 790, 793, 843, 864 Relaxation factor, 827, 828 Remote sensing, 829, 862 Resistance, contact thermal, 217, 218, 329 Resistance, thermal, 44, 52, 214-218, 220, 240, 329, 364, 463, 563, 572, 575, 598, 603-656, 709 Resistance heating, 443 Reynolds analogy, 408 Reynolds number, 50-52, 61, 123, 153, 155, 170, 183, 190, 197, 419, 426, 438, 440, 456, 472, 485, 501-503, 507, 508, 520, 521, 529, 609, 618, 619-622, 626, 627, 628, 631, 633, 636, 641, 642, 644-649, 698 Reynolds stress, 186, 189, 413 S Saturated boiling, 666, 703 radiation shields, 812 Scale analysis, 1, 48, 59, 60, 86, 260, 281, 343, 344, 346, 413, 517, 521-524, 532, 555, 556, 563, 587, 589, 650-652, 737 Scaling, 2, 44, 59, 171, 348, 360, 433, 532, 534, 725 Scanning electron microscope (SEM), 780 Scattering, 46, 779, 784, 787, 838-841, 843, 844, 846, 848, 862-865, 873 Schmidt number, 19, 52, 58, 414, 415, 470, 641, 662, 899, 903, 904 Second law of thermodynamics, 99, 110, 124 Seebeck effect, 44 Self-diffusion coefficient, 14, 137 Semi-infinite solid, 59, 333, 334 Sensible heat, 3, 5, 22, 52, 56, 62, 86, 282, 310, 333, 337, 411, 434 Separation of variables, 231, 233, 242, 244, 247, 249, 254, 256, 263, 286, 328, 329, 449, 455, 457, 460, 465, 468, 494, 511 Shape factors, 238 Sherwood number, 41, 52, 58, 368, 434, 462, 463, 466, 467, 469, 470, 513 SI system, 3 Similarity solutions, 350-352, 359, 362, 366, 434, 535, 536 Similarity variables, 366, 434, 529, 532, 542, 552-554, 712, 714, 737 SIMPLE algorithm, 394, 395, 404, 437, 570 Solar constant, 767, 768, 789, 791 Solar radiation, 771, 772, 789, 863-866, 871 Solar thermal energy collector, 771 solids, 4, 15, 16, 45, 68, 81, 108, 131, 363, 603, 740, 741, 788, 875, 880, 881, 883, 885, 886, 887, 899, 900, 902, 905, 906, 915 Solubility, 132, 133, 899, 905, 906, 907 Sources, energy, 62, 835 Species, 20, 27, 29, 32-41, 90, 94, 99-101, 105, 111, 112, 117-121, 123, 124, 128-133, 150, 152, 156, 159, 163, 164, 166, 181, 184, 187, 208, 340, 345, 347, 351, 365, 407, 409, 415, 444, 461, 467, 474, 518, 519, 612, 662, 728 Species flux, 129 932 Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, and John Howell Copyright © 2010 Global Digital Press Specific heat, 4, 5, 13, 19, 45, 49, 84, 140, 142, 144, 159, 166, 179, 225, 309-312, 343, 412, 438, 612, 613, 638, 771, 838, 878, 889-893 Spectral absorptivity, 754, 755, 777 Spectral distribution, 742, 754, 756, 767, 768 Spectral emissive power, 31, 742, 743, 747, 748, 789, 850 Spectral emissivity, 751, 752, 755, 758, 759, 762, 763, 766, 767, 781, 789, 790, 815 Spheres, 14, 54, 55, 57, 171, 202, 212, 213, 216, 246, 326, 328, 329, 336, 360, 517, 526, 543, 549, 550, 551, 569, 571, 589, 634, 657, 717, 718, 728, 737, 779, 780, 781, 791, 856, 913 Staggered grid, 390, 391, 721 Stagnation point, 360 Stanton number, 52 Stefan number, 52, 282, 284, 288, 291, 579 Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 32, 717, 744, 840, 876 Stefan-Boltzmann law, 744 Stokes drag force, 171 Stokes flow, 171 Stream functions, 570, 711, 712 Stress, 20, 21, 25-27, 68, 71, 94-97, 104, 109, 125, 127, 139, 162, 171-173, 175, 186, 189, 206, 340, 355, 371-373, 404, 410, 413, 417, 418, 423, 425-427, 429, 445, 500, 502, 506, 513, 517, 538, 596, 614, 616, 619, 623, 624, 626-630, 632, 633, 656, 657, 658, 660, 711, 728, 829, 921 Subcooled boiling, 666, 716, 737 Sublimation, 2, 21, 22, 57, 87, 129, 131, 362367, 408-412, 434, 436, 444, 458-460, 462, 463, 464, 466, 468, 513 Summation rule, 801, 804, 819 Surface tension, 43, 44, 50-52, 73, 95, 125, 127, 198, 206, 400, 402, 430, 431, 594, 598-603, 647, 675, 677, 680, 685, 687-689, 693, 724, 725 T TDMA (Tridiagonal-matrix algorithm), 269, 273, 275 Temperature field, 370, 397, 402, 446, 509, 665, 675, 679, 682, 685, 691, 734, 847 Temperature gradient, 18, 23, 28-30, 44, 47, 195, 209, 210, 219, 315, 318, 336, 337, 372, 515, 519, 529, 560, 563, 580, 618, 650, 659, 725, 751, 813, 824 Temperature-transforming model, 305, 311, 313, 314 Tensor, 20, 26, 27, 29, 94, 104, 107, 109, 125, 127, 148, 162, 170, 172, 209, 413, 517, 728, 921, 922 Thermal boundary layer, 197, 258, 357-359, 372, 427, 441, 472, 515, 516, 520-522, 524-526, 529, 531, 533, 534, 536, 541, 544, 546, 549, 557, 559, 571, 587, 593, 666, 682, 710 Thermal conductivity, 14, 19, 28, 29, 31, 44, 45, 47, 49, 77-84, 144, 155, 170, 180, 209-212, 214, 216, 218, 221, 225, 228, 238, 261, 265, 269, 273, 274, 299, 306, 311, 313, 316, 317, 318, 321, 327, 330, 342, 375, 398, 403, 404, 438, 479, 480, 612, 614, 683, 725, 782, 822, 851, 852, 872, 878, 889-893 Thermal diffusivity, 29, 40, 211, 308, 315, 343, 462, 467, 523, 679, 683, 782, 877, 889, 890, 891, 892, 893 Thermal energy, 3, 10, 14, 28, 44, 62, 107, 209, 282, 291, 300, 325, 436, 443, 572, 575, 659, 668, 669, 741, 742, 744, 771 Thermal entry length, 454, 456, 458 Thermal expansion coefficient, 85 Thermal penetration depth, 59, 60, 258, 259, 260, 261, 289, 290, 294-296, 298, 330, 334 Thermal radiation, 31, 82, 739, 741-745, 747, 749-751, 753, 755, 757, 759, 761, 763, 765, 767, 769, 771, 773, 775, 777-779, 781, 783, 785, 787-789, 791, 793, 868, 915 Thermal resistance, 44, 52, 214-218, 220, 240, 329, 364, 463, 563, 572, 575, 598, 603-656, 709 Thermodynamic pressure, 26 Thermodynamics, 1, 8, 25, 82, 95, 99, 110, 124, 209, 319, 586, 670, 898 Thermophysical properties, 63, 114, 244, 246, 248, 249, 265, 272, 317, 328, 329, 338, 519, 565, 567, 571, 716, 788, 838, 895, 915 Thermosyphon, 596, 634, 653, 660, 662 Thin film, 44, 47, 125, 314, 319, 320, 321, 590, 602, 609, 619, 646, 691, 692, 722 Thomson effect, 44 Time averaging, 146, 149, 182, 184-186, 188, 413 Time interval, 43, 149, 182, 270, 302 Total emissive power, 753, 789 Transient conduction, 240, 241, 244, 258, 263265, 270-274, 331, 436, 598, 697, 781 Index 933 Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, and John Howell Copyright © 2010 Global Digital Press Transition boiling, 666, 668, 669, 705- 707, 709, 723, 736 Transmission, 31, 363, 585, 732, 867 Transmissivity, 841 Transparent media, 794 Transport properties, 19, 43, 875, 880-910 Tubes, 56, 174, 175, 300, 440, 450, 452, 470, 475, 502, 513, 586, 634, 653, 654, 658, 659, 701, 744 Turbulence, 123, 183, 187, 189, 191, 192, 341, 412, 431, 438, 499 fundamentals, 181-190 external flow, 412-430 internal flow, 499-508 natural convection, 537-540 Turbulent boundary layers, 426, 431, 499 Turbulent film condensation, 598, 621, 629, 654, 656 Turbulent flow, 27, 63, 181-184, 187, 190, 206, 369, 406, 412-418, 422-426, 430-432, 440, 441, 485, 499-503, 505, 514, 516, 537, 538, 540, 541, 609, 621, 627-630, 645, 654, 696 Two-phase flow , 52, 205, 731 U Underrelaxation, 289 Unit mass, 4, 6, 37, 91, 94, 152, 410, 411, 423, 434 Unit volume, 11, 20, 33, 94, 96, 104, 105, 107, 110, 111, 112, 140, 149, 151, 180, 183, 225, 518, 906 Units, 9, 16, 49, 132, 170, 742, 744, 745, 840, 860, 875, 876, 877, 879 Upwind scheme, 378, 379, 380, 381, 404 V van Driest model, 420, 421, 633 Vapor blanket, 702 Vapor bubbles, 152, 153, 204, 592, 665, 667, 669, 670, 681, 691, 702, 707, 708, 731, 735 Vaporization, 6, 7, 18, 21, 22, 24, 50, 63, 86, 127, 298, 609, 622, 635, 653, 663, 675, 714, 723, 730, 899, 903 Vector, 20, 29, 37, 85, 94, 96, 101-106, 107, 110, 148, 170, 175, 182, 200, 209, 210, 280, 315, 325, 400, 720, 728, 778, 779, 787, 811, 916-922 Velocity boundary layer, 515, 516, 519, 526, 541, 587, 709 Velocity profile, 175, 176, 196, 344, 349-352, 358, 371-373, 391, 417, 420, 422, 424-426, 439-441, 445, 448, 450, 451, 454, 459, 470, 475, 485-487, 493, 496, 500, 501, 505, 507, 530, 531, 534, 536, 538, 573, 587, 617, 618, 624, 630, 631, 633, 643, 644, 659, 715 Vibrational energy, 14, 15, 18, 22 Viscous dissipation, 52, 107, 109, 110, 112, 114, 116, 135, 139, 179, 189, 194, 195, 206, 207, 309, 352, 355, 360, 398, 433, 435, 446, 447, 448, 451, 454, 471, 478, 479, 480, 481, 487, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 509, 510, 520 Viscous stresses, 26, 27 VOF (Volume of Fluid), 397, 398, 399, 400, 402 Void fraction, 167, 206 Volume average, 147, 148, 150, 168, 172, 174, 176, 183, 398 Volume-averaged velocity, 168, 169, 174 Volumetric flow rate, 196, 486 Volumetric heat capacity, 316 W wavelength, 31, 46, 76, 702, 703, 717, 739-746, 748, 750, 751, 752, 754-760, 762, 764-768, 772, 774, 777-780, 784, 785, 789, 790, 797, 805-807, 814, 815, 839, 842, 843, 846, 847, 848, 850, 851, 855, 857, 858, 861, 863, 864, 866, 871 Weber number, 52 Wedge, 304, 323, 359, 360, 361, 362, 369, 370, 434, 435, 801 Wetting, 21, 591, 654, 701, 702, 706 Wicks, 167, 174, 192, 432, 479 Wien's displacement law, 744 Work, 3, 61, 77, 78, 81, 88, 95-98, 118, 127, 207, 220, 231, 247, 249, 256, 264, 304, 333, 389, 400, 402, 406, 420, 422, 480, 481, 502, 512, 537, 549, 572, 575, 599, 601, 659, 662, 663, 688, 690, 696, 697, 706, 720, 737, 769, 771, 772, 774, 776, 781, 830, 837 Y Young-Laplace equation, 601 934 Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, and John Howell Copyright © 2010 Global Digital Press